Tarihin gobirawa

  • Music: Sogha Aichatou- Sultan Abdu Bala Marafa

    A kwanan baya wata Shahararrar Mawakiya a Jamhoriyar Nijar wadda tayi suna a fagen Wakokin Gargajiya da na Faransanci; Aichatou Ali Soumaila, ta kawo ziyarar ban girma a Masarautar Tsibirin Gobir inda tayi wajen sati biyu a garin tana sada zumunta. Mawakiyar ta wake Sarkin Gobir Maimartaba Abdu Bala Marafa a salon mai ma’ana da daɗaɗa kunnai.

    A baitin wakar, Aichatou ta ambato wasu Sarakunan Gobir wanda sunka yi gwagwarmaya ta dabam a tarihin Daular Gobir, a Nahiyar Afrika. Ku dauko ku sha saurare!

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  • Tarihin Birnin Lalle da sarkinta na mutum-mutumi, Sarki Kututturu

    Akwai wata masarauta daga cikin daɗaɗɗun masarautun Afrika, wani gari mai suna Birnin lalle dake cikin yankin Dakoro a Jahar Maradi, Jamhoriyar Nijar. Tsohuwar Masarautar Gobir ɗin tayi suna ne a tarihin Gobir saboda abubuwan tarihin da sunka wakana a cikinta: Birnin itatuwan lalle (itatuwan da sunka samarwa garin sunanshi) wanda yanzu babu yawancin su a tabkin saboda kolliyar jiki da matan hausawa ke yi da lalle, wankan lalle lokacin aure da sauransu; Kushewar Tahoua, mazamnar kabarin sarauniyar mata ta farko da aka yi a Gobir wato Sarauniya Tahawwa, uwa ga wanda suka kafa Birnin konni dake cikin Jahar Tahoua a Jamhoriyar Nijar da Masarautar Argungu a jahar Kebbi, Nijeriya; Masarautar da Sarki Dalla Gungume yayi mulki, ana kuma kiranshi da Sarki Kututturu (ɗaya daga abubuwan tarihin ban mamaki da aka taɓa yi a Afrika); mazamnar tabkin tarihin da babu irinshi a kasar, “Tabkin lalle”, wanda yake janyo ƴan yawon buɗa ido daga ciki da wajen Jahar Maradi, Jamhoriyar Nijar.

    Birnin lalle shine birni na gaba bayan Gobirawa sun baro Birnin Marandat da Birnin Toro. Sun kafa birnin ɗaruruwan shekaru da sunka gabata sanda suke neman ma’adanar ruwa, gulbi ko tabki wanda zasu rinƙa ayukkansu na noma, kasancewarsu manoma tun farkon-farko. Birnin ya samo sunanshi ne daga itatuwan lalle da sunka tarar a gaɓar tabkin, da isowarsu wurin da ganin itatuwan nan, nan-da-nan sunka ba garin suna, daga cewa “Wannan wuri Birnin lalle kenan!” Wannan tabkin shine dalilin zamansu nan, saboda daɗaɗɗen aikinsu noma da kuma cewar ruwa sune rayuwa. Ta bakin masana tarihi, Birnin lalle ta kafu tun shekaru 2000 da suka gabata. Gobirawa a zamanin daure matafiyane na ƙwaran da gaske, sun sha ƙaura da tafiya tun daga Baghdad har zuwa mazamninsu na ƙarshe, sannan kuma cikin biranen da sunka baro a baya, kowane nada dalili tattare da tashi dagareshi ko barinshi… “Kwararowar hamada”, “Rashin cimaka”, “Rashin ruwan noma”, “Yaki” da wasu matsaloli na rayuwa, kamar yadda aka bayyana. Amman a ɓangaren Birnin lalle dalilin shine rashin cimaka da ya ɓarke a garin.

    Bayan wanda sunka kafa garin sun yi hijira, ance garin ya sake yin wani tashe shekaru 300 da suka gabata a matsayin cibiyar kasuwancin zamanin, ta bakin wani masanin tarihin baka a tsohon garin, inda tarihi ya bada cewa Tawagar ƴan kasuwar Kano basu tsayawa bisa hanya su saida kayansu- doli sai sun iso Lalle, lokacin cibiyar kasuwanci ta yanzu “Maradi” na a matsayin ƙauye ko kuma ba’a kafata ba.

    Birnin lalle ta taɓa zama Babban birnin Faransawa ƴan mulkin mallaka a yankin, amman bayan Shugaban yankin ya damu da kukan kwaɗɗin dake fitowa daga tabkin, Maibuje (sunan da mutanen nashi suka laka mai, ma’ana wanda ke sanya buje) ya gusarda birnin zuwa Dakoro ta yanzu, gari mai nisan kilo 15 daga Birnin lalle.

    Sarki Issuhou Maidabo shine sarkin daɗaɗɗar Masarautar ta Birnin Lalle. An naɗashi bisa sarautar tun tsawon shekaru 50 da suka wuce da cikakken iko ga ƙauyukka da garuruwan dake ƙarƙashin Masarautar a Gwamnatin Faransawa, wasu garuruwan kuma a ƙarƙashin Masarauta makwabciya, Kornaka dake ƙarƙashin riƙon Abzinawa, amman asalinta da can Masarautar Gobir ce.

    Abzinawa sun samu damar hawa mulki a masarautar bayan kakansu Sarki Jaku ya sabka a Garin Kornaka. Ya auri Gimbiya Bagobira mai suna Gimbiya Sahiya. Sanda Sarki Bagobiri da ya mulki masarautar ƙarshe ya rasu kuma baida magadi da zai gadeshi, Jaku ya roƙi surukainai, sarakan Tsibiri Gobir su bashi dama shima ya hau sarauta kuma basu iya cewa a’a dan Gobirawa nada wata tabi’a ta kumyar surukkansu, sai sunka naɗashi. Zuri’atai ce ke mulki a daɗaɗɗen Garin Kornaka dake tattareda jama’ar Hausawa, Abzinawa, Buzaye, Zabarmawa, Barebari da Fulani a yankin na Dakoro, Jahar Maradi a Jamhoriyar Nijar.

    Tabkin Lalle ya mamaye kusan eka ɗari a misali, ga shibke-shibken itatuwa iri-iri da ake samu a yankin, sai zazzaƙan kukan tsuntsaye dake tarben mutum sanda ya kama hanyar shiga tabkin. Tabkin tarihin da babu irinshi a Nijar na samun ziyarar yan yawon buda ido daga ciki da wajen kasar, mafi yawancin lokuttan bukukuwan sallah. Ruwan tabkin, a lokacin rani na ba masu noman gandari damar samarwa garuruwa da kauyukkan kewaye kayan danye da ɗiyan itatuwa inda su kuma manoman suke samun kuɗaɗen shiga ta hakan. Ƙarawa da ƙarau, ƙarƙashin shugaban ƙasar mai ci yanzu da sa hannun ƙasashen waje, noman na rani yanzu an ƙarfafa shi da bada injinukkan tsotso ruwa da wayar ma mazamna garin da kai gameda noman rani. Shugaba Muhammadou Issuhou ya fito da wani shiri mai taken “Dan Nijar ya cida Dan Nijar”, manufarshi shine Yan Nijar su yi amfani da noman rani wajen samarwa mutanen kasa kayan abinci a shekarar 2015 kuma Birnin lalle na daga wanda sunka ci gajiyar wannan shirin har wa yau. Tabkin lalle na daɗewa da ruwa dan saboda haka makyayan Rakumai da Shanu, Abzinawa makyaya da Fulani makyaya, na tunkara tai da bisashensu duk sanda ruwa sunka kakare musu a sauran tabkunan kasar.

    Sarki Kututturu na daga sarakunan da aka yi a birnin; Sarki Barankame, Sarki Kanni, Sarki Bartakeskes, Sarki Hammadin, Sarki Bartuwatuwa da wasu na daga cikin sarakunan Gobir wanda aka ƙiyasta sun kai su dari ukku da tamanin (380), amman abun ban mamaki shine Sarki Kututturu ba mutum bane- icce ne aka sassaƙa aka naɗa. Sarkin kututturu wata alamace ta azancin Afrikawa da suke bijirowa da ita dan shawo kan matsalolin da sunka addabe su. Wannan na daga abubuwan tarihin da sunka abku a Gobir, kuma ana ƙidaya sarkin cikin sarakunan Gobir.

    Dubara ta zo ma sarakin wata rana da suka shiga daji kilisa, sun samu kututturun icce sunka sassaƙo mutum sunka naɗashi sarki. Sun bijiro da wannan dubaran ne dan su dakatarda kashe-kashen da ake ma sarakunan da basu ji basu gani ba a Birnin lalle lokacinda sarakin gobir suka samu rashin jituwa tsakaninsu danganeda zaben sarki. Bayan an yi bikin naɗin Sarki kututturu, sarakin da basu so sun sake yo yunkurin kawarda sarkin, kamar yadda suka ga bayan wasu a baya, amman sun tararda Sarkin dangalgal bisa karagar shi. Ga nasu tunanin basu san adadin layun ko karhunan da ya tanada ba da suka sa bai razana da ganinsu ba ko kuma abunda ke cikin zucciyar shi, daga nan sunka sallama suka bari aka naɗa sarakuna mutane tun kafin su tashi daga garin. Sarki Kanni da Sarki Hammadin ɗiyan da sunka ragema Sarauniya Tahawwa sun tsira da rayuwarsu da suka kama hanyar tsira da dare, kamar yadda suka shawarta. An tilastasu hawa gadon sarautar ɗaya bayan ɗaya cikin basu so. Koda aka naɗa Kanni dare na yi ya hau sirdi ya bace ba’a san inda ya dosa ba. Shi ma kanen kanni, Hammadin da aka naɗa shi shi ma ya bi ɗanuwar shi. Sarki Kanni shine ya kafa Birnin konni cikin Jamhoriyar Nijar, Hammadin kuma bayan ya yi ɗan zama tareda wan nashi yayi ƙaura yaje ya kafa Masarautar Argungu a jahar Kebbi Nijeriya yanzu.

    Duk sanda Uwar su Sarauniya Tahawwa ta tuno yadda ɗiyan da suka rage mata suka yi ɓatan dabo sai tace “Gobirawa haka kunka kai ni, bani ga Kanni, bani ga Hammadin?” cikin ɓacin rai, ta bakin baitin mawakin gargajiya kuma masanin tarihi, Margyayi Alhaji Maidaji Sabon Birni.

    Bayan wannan ta samu haɗuwa da ɗiyanta biyu bayan an gano inda suke. An kawoma Sarki Kanni matar shi mai ciki wadda ya baro a Birnin Lalle kuma masoya nai suka yo dandazo suka zamna taredashi. Sarki Kanni da kanenshi Sarki Hammadi kowane nada tsagen Gobirawa nan shidda (6) nan bakwai (7) zane a kumatunsu na dama da na hagum, da lokacin haihuwar ɗiyansu na farin suka yanke shawarar kowane ɗa za’a mai tsaga goma (10) da sha-biyu (12) dan su bambamta ɗiyansu daga sauran ɗiyan Gobirawa. Bayan ƴan shekaru da zama da magaji nai Kanni shugaba mai farin jini kuma wanda ya shahara, Hammadin, ganin ya iya tsayawa da kai nai, ya tashi daga nan shi ma yaje ya kafa tashi masarauta, Argungu cikin jahar Kebbi, Nijeriya.

    Nasan mutane zasu rinka tambaya ya Sarki Kututturu yayi sha’anin mulkinshi, to Sarki Kututturu nada fadawa da masoya kuma duk sanda mutane suka zo yin gaisuwar fada, fadawan zasu amshe su maida da, “Sarki ya gaisheka”, watakila wannan ne mafarin irin wannan amshin gaisuwa a tsarin Shugabancin Hausawa. Shari’a kuma ko sasanta matsalolin zamantakewar mutane, wakilai ke yin ta a fada inda suke maye gurbin sarkin, duk sanda ake buƙata.

  • History of Birnin Lalle and her sculptured king, Sarki Kututturu

    There situated one ancient African kingdom, Birnin lalle in Dakoro district of Maradi state of Niger Republic. The ancient Gobir kingdom in West Africa was renowned for its historic occurances in Gobir history; city of Henna trees (the trees that fetches the city its name) which numbers of them now did not withstand test of time in the lake owing to traditions of Hausa women body beautifications, marriage rite bathing and others. In this ancient city, there located tomb of Gobir first marked womanly royal, Kushewar Tahoua, the tomb of Queen Sarauniya Tahawwa, mother to founders of Birnin konni in Tahoua state, Niger Republic and Argungu emirate in kebbi state of Nigeria. The throne of Sarki Dalla Gungume, also Sarki Kututturu(one of African historic sculptured king that was had in the kingdom) is located there; And location of remarkable lake of its kind in the country “Tabkin lalle”, which attracts tourists from within and outside Maradi State of Niger Republic.

    Birnin lalle is the next capital Gobirawas settled in after Birnin Marandat and Birnin Toro. The city was founded centuries ago by Gobir hausas when they were in quest of a river or lake they would be practicing their dry season farming, being them farmers since day one. The city got its name from the Henna trees they found at the lake bank, by approaching the area with the spacious lake and discovering the trees there, they instantly gave the area name, by exclaming “Wannan wuri Birnin lalle kenan! -What a place bound with Henna trees!” The lake is the reason of their settling in there, due to their ancient occupation farming and the fact that water is life. According to historians, the Gobir capital, Birnin lalle was founded about 2000 years ago. Gobir people of ancient time are incessant travelers, they wandered all the way from Baghdad to their last spot, moreover amidst their capitals that they deserted, each one has a purpose surrounding… “Drought”, “Femine”, ” Lack of stream”, “War” and other social vices, as speculated. But on the part of Birnin lalle it was as a result of outbreak of femine.

    After the former founders moved, it was said the city made another boom 300 years back as a commercial city of that time, according to one oral historian in the ancient city, where the myth was that Kano based Merchants Caravans don’t stop by to sell-off goods to buyers enroute- untill they got to Lalle, then the present economic state “Maradi” was still a little village or not even in existence.

    Birnin lalle was once an administrative headquarter of French colonies but following the Frenchman’s dissatisfaction in the frogs crowing emerging from the lake, Maibuje (name given to him by the people, meaning one who wore skirt) moved the quarter to present Dakoro, a 15 km distance away from Birnin lalle.

    Sarki Issuhou Maidabo is the traditional ruler of the ancient kingdom of Birnin Lalle. He was enthroned to the ancient kingdom for about 50 years with traditional authority to villages and towns assigned to the kingdom by the French Government while other villages to a neighbouring kingdom, Kornaka under rule of Tuaregs (Abzinawas), formerly a Gobir hausa kingdom.

    Abzinawas were opportuned to rule the kingdom after their forefather Sarki Jaku settled in Kornaka Town. He married a Bagobira princess by name Princess Sahiya. When the Bagobiri king that ruled the kingdom last died and he begot no heir to succeed him, Jaku implored on his inlaws, the royals of Tibiri Gobir to let him be the next king to the throne and they have no option than to let him because Gobir hausas have such a tradition in them not to turn down their Inlaws requests and they enthroned him. His lineage are the rulers of the ancient town of Kornaka populated with Hausas, Tuaregs(Abzinawa), Zabarmawas, (Barebaris) Kanuris and Fulanis in the Dakoro district of Maradi state in Niger Republic.

    Tabkin Lalle covers about hundreds hectares of land implanted with different species of trees and enrevling sweet songs of birds as one approaches the lake. The remarkable lake attracts tourists and visitors from within and outside the country, most especially during Islamic festivals. The inhabitants who practiced dry season farming harvests tons of fresh vegetables and fruits which they distribute to neighbouring towns and villages markets, and generating revenue by so doing. In addition, under the undisputable President of the nation and with the aid of International interventions, the dry season farming was strenghtened with provisions of Machineries and enlightment. President Muhammadou Issuhou launched a program called “Dan Nijar ya cida Dan Nijar” let Nigerienes feeds Nigerines in the country in the year 2015 and Birnin lalle was among the beneficiaries of the program till date. Tabkin lalle also serves as must go for to camels and cattle rearers- Normadic Tuaregs and Fulanis, when other lakes that provides water to their livestocks had dried-off.

    Sarki Kututturu amidst other kings that were had in the city; Sarki Barankame, Sarki Kanni, Sarki Bartakeskes, Sarki Hammadin, Sarki Bartuwatuwa and others were among the Gobir 380 kings, but the fascinating fact is that Sarki Kututturu is not human king- it’s scuptured. The sculptured king, Sarki Kuturturu is an example of ancient African technology- tactics used by Africans to overcome a difficult situation in olden days and this is one of historical occurances in Gobir. The king is counted among Gobir 380 kings.

    An idea came to the royals fathers when they are out for a walk in the forest, they found a trunk and carved-out sculpture from it and enthroned it. They implemented this trick so as to checkmate killings of innocent kings by the rival royal families in Birnin lalle, when there was misunderstandings among the royal families in choosing a king. After the trunk king had been enthroned, the opposing royal families came forth as usual to make the king’s end, as they done have to others, but they found Sarki firm and fixed in his throne. To their understandings they don’t know the number of charms or amulets he possesses that made him not be scared of them or what he has in mind, at that instant they let peace reign and gave room to enthrone human kings long before they moved. Sarki Kannin and Sarki Hammadin the two surviving sons of Queen Sarauniya Tahawwa survived it by fleeing at night, as they have planned. They were forced to the throne one after another. They mounted horses and fleed northward and founded the present Birnin konni in Niger Republic and Argungu emirate in Kebbi state of Nigeria.

    Whenever their Mother, Queen Sarauniya Tahawwa recalled on how her two surviving sons got lost in the tiny air she would lament “Gobirawa haka kunka kai ni, bani ga Kannin, bani ga Hammadin?- Gobirawas is this how have got me, separating me from Kannin and Hammadin?” out of grief, according to Late Hausa Traditional Musician and Historian, Alhaji Maidaji Sabon Birni.

    After that She later reunited with her two sons when She learnt of their whereabouts. Sarki Kanni’s pregnant wife which he left at Birnin Lalle was brought to him and his supporters flooded and lived with him. Sarki Kannin and his younger brother Sarki Hammadi each have normal Gobir tribal marks six (6) and seven (7) scars respectively on their right and left cheek, and at the birth of their first children they decided that each child should have ten (10) or Twelve (12) scars in order to differentiate their children from other Gobirawas children. After a few years of stay with his elder brother Kanni who became the beloved and undisputed leader, Hammadin, considering that he has accomplished his duty, moved and founded Argungu emirate in present Nigeria.

    Sarki Kututturu serves some roles as a king during his reign, the king had chiefs and followers and when people come to do palace greetings, the chiefs and followers would quickly respond, “Sarki ya gaisheku- the king greets you”, perhaps that originated the practice of such responds to greetings in Hausa system of Government. Settling quarrels or disputes is done by the chiefs in palace who are taking the Sarki Kututturu’s part, when needed.

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