History of Ancient Gobir empire and list of her Capitals
The history of Gobir predates 5,000 years with 1,100 years of migrations. According to the explanations given by the head of the Maradi Institute for Social Sciences (IRSH), Mr. Sani Habou Magagi, If we take from the Eastern origin, the Gobirawa have come from Baghdad. That is to say present day Iraq, which is their first site or first capital. Their 2nd capital is Birnin Kudus in Jerusalem, The 3rd capital is Birnin Gubur in Yemen where they got the name “Gobir”, The 4th is Birnin Karbala in Saudi Arabia, The 5th is Birnin Masar (Egypt in Africa). The 6th capital is Birnin Surukan in Tunisia, The 7th is Birnin Tunasse still in Tunisia (North Africa), The 8th capital is Birnin Bagazam in Agadez, Niger Republic, (West Africa). The 9th is Birnin Aigadasse still in Niger Republic, The 10th is Birnin Tinliguilit in Niger also, The 11th is Birnin Marandat in Niger, The 12th capital is Birnin Toro in Niger, The 13th is Birnin Lalle in Niger, The 14th is Birnin Gwararrame in Niger, The 15th is Birnin Alkalawa in Nigeria, The 16th capital is Birnin Dakwarawa in Niger, The 17th Capital is Birnin Gawon Gazau in Nigeria.
The 18th capital is Birnin Maradi in Niger (when Jibon Ta’uba branched to pay homeage to his maternal Katsinawa relatives) and the 19th and last capital is Birnin Tsibirin Gobir in Niger Republic. So there were 19 capitals, from Iraq to Niger, within 1,100 years of migrations; It should be noted that with these multiple migrations, the first Gobirawas intermingled with some people they found on the spot.
According to the explanations given by the head of the IRSH, the capital Tibiri (Gobir) was founded in the 19th century, more precisely in 1835 by Djibon Taouba; Gobirawas founded their 19th capital, Birnin Tibiri in 1835 at the end of the Battle of Dakwarawa between Sultan Muhammadu Bello (the second king of Sokoto after Usman Danfodio his father) and two kings: one of Katsina Maradi, known as Sarki Raouda and the other in Tibiri called Sarki Ali.
According to Sani Habou Magagi, if we take this genealogical list from the first traditional ruler to the Gobir 380th ruler, Sultan Elhadj Abdourahmane Balla Marafa, we can say that the Gobir’s climax came to fruition during the reign of Sarkin Gobir Bawa Jangwarzo. His fame has reached the four corners of the world. During his reign there was no wickedness and he was the absolute master of the Gobirawas. He prayed for a mysterious secret by which his power was recognized outside Gobir empire.
The decline of large West African empires or kingdoms began with the Jihad of El Hadj Omar in western Sudan, that of Usmanu Danfodio in central Sudan and the Jihad of Mahadi in eastern Sudan. And it was during the same period, 19th century, that these three (3) Jihads took place. As for the decline of Gobir, there was the Fulani war of Usman Danfodio who targeted the reigning family with his crisis, targeting Sarki Yunfa and his brothers; There were also tribal and civil wars between the other Hausa kingdoms. And at the beginning of the 20th century there was colonial penetration which aided in weakening these great kingdoms in Africa.